A wargame (also war game) is a strategy game that deals with military operations of various types, real or fictional. Wargaming is the hobby dedicated to the play of such games, which can also be called conflict simulations, or consims for short. When used professionally by the military to study warfare, “war game” may refer…

Unified Command

An application of ICS that is used when there is more than one agency with incident jurisdiction or when incidents cross political jurisdictions. Agencies work together through the designated members of the Unified Command, often the senior person from agencies and/or disciplines participating in the Unified Command, to establish a common set of objectives and…

Unified Area Command

A Unified Area Command is established when incidents under an Area Command are multijurisdictional. (See Area Command and Unified Command.)

Standard Operating Procedure (SOP)

Complete reference document or an operations manual that provides the purpose, authorities, duration and details for the preferred method of performing a single function or a number of interrelated functions in a uniform manner.

Synthetic Learning Environments

A learning environment characterized in terms of a particular technology, subject matter, learner characteristics and pedagogical principles. It is a synthetic experience, as opposed to a real-world interaction with an actual device or process, and is created for the learner through a simulation, game or other technology.


A working representation of reality, it is used in training to represent devices and processes and may be low or high in terms of physical or functional fidelity.


Activities that address the short-term, direct effects of an incident. Response includes immediate actions to save lives, protect property and meet basic human needs. Response also includes the execution of emergency operations plans and of mitigation activities designed to limit the loss of life, personal injury, property damage and other unfavorable outcomes. As indicated by…

Red Team

An inside group that explicitly challenges a company’s strategy, products and preconceived notions. It frames a problem from the perspective of an adversary or sceptic, to find gaps in plans, and to avoid blunders.